Below is a list of our publications, including original research, reviews, and book chapters. 

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Thakur M, Bista S, Foor SD, Dutta S, Yang X, Ronzetti M, Rana VS, Kitsou C, Linden SB, Altieri AS, Baljinnyam B, Nelson DC, Simeonov A, Pal U. Controlled Proteolysis of an Essential Virulence Determinant Dictates Infectivity of Lyme Disease Pathogens. Infect Immun. 2022 Apr 13:e0005922. doi: 10.1128/iai.00059-22. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35416705.


Kitsou C and Pal U. Vaccines against Vector-borne Diseases. Springer Protocol Book series: Methods in Molecular Biology, Springer Nature, 2021. In Press.

Tang X, Cao Y, Arora G, Hwang J, Sajid A, Brown CL, Mehta S, Marín-López A, Chuang YM, Wu MJ, Ma H, Pal U, Narasimhan S, Fikrig E. The Lyme disease agent co-opts adiponectin receptor-mediated signaling in its arthropod vector. Elife. 2021 Nov 16;10:e72568. doi: 10.7554/eLife.72568. PMID: 34783654.

Kitsou C, Foor SD, Dutta S, Bista S, Pal U. Tick gut barriers impacting tick-microbe interactions and pathogen persistence. Mol Microbiol. 2021 Nov;116(5):1241-1248. doi: 10.1111/mmi.14822. Epub 2021 Oct 6. PMID: 34570926.

Sajid A, Matias J, Arora G, Kurokawa C, DePonte K, Tang X, Lynn G, Wu MJ, Pal U, Strank NO, Pardi N, Narasimhan S, Weissman D, Fikrig E. mRNA vaccination induces tick resistance and prevents transmission of the Lyme disease agent. Sci Transl Med. 2021 Nov 17;13(620):eabj9827. doi: 10.1126/scitranslmed.abj9827. Epub 2021 Nov 17. PMID: 34788080.

Narasimhan S, Swei A, Abouneameh S, Pal U, Pedra JHF, Fikrig E. Grappling with the tick microbiome. Trends Parasitol. 2021 Aug;37(8):722-733. doi: 10.1016/ Epub 2021 May 4. PMID: 33962878.

Kitsou C, Fikrig E, Pal U. Tick host immunity: vector immunomodulation and acquired tick resistance. Trends Immunol. 2021 Jul;42(7):554-574. doi: 10.1016/ Epub 2021 May 30. PMID: 34074602. [Feature Review & selected as cover image:]

Oliva Chávez AS, Wang X, Marnin L, Archer NK, Hammond HL, Carroll EEM, Shaw DK, Tully BG, Buskirk AD, Ford SL, Butler LR, Shahi P, Morozova K, Clement CC, Lawres L, Neal AJO, Mamoun CB, Mason KL, Hobbs BE, Scoles GA, Barry EM, Sonenshine DE, Pal U, Valenzuela JG, Sztein MB, Pasetti MF, Levin ML, Kotsyfakis M, Jay SM, Huntley JF, Miller LS, Santambrogio L, Pedra JHF.  Tick extracellular vesicles enable arthropod feeding and promote distinct outcomes of bacterial infection.  Nat Commun. 2021 Jun 17;12(1):3696. doi: 10.1038/s41467-021-23900-8. PMID: 34140472.

Narasimhan S, Kurokawa C, DeBlasio M, Matias J, Sajid A, Pal U, Lynn G, Fikrig E. Acquired tick resistance: The trail is hot. Parasite Immunol. 2021 May; 43(5):e12808. doi: 10.1111/pim.12808. Epub 2020 Dec 15. PMID: 33187012.

Koči J, Bista S, Chirania P, Yang X, Kitsou C, Rana VS, Yas OB, Sonenshine DE, Pal U. Antibodies against EGF-like domains in Ixodes scapularis BM86 orthologs impact tick feeding and survival of Borrelia burgdorferi. Sci Rep. 2021 Mar 17;11(1):6095. doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-85624-5. PMID: 33731754.

Klouwens MJ, Trentelman JJ, Ersoz JI, Nieves Marques Porto F, Sima R, Hajdusek O, Thakur M, Pal U, Hovius JW. Investigating BB0405 as a novel Borrelia afzelii vaccination candidate in Lyme borreliosis. Sci Rep. 2021 Feb 26;11(1):4775. doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-84130-y. PMID: 33637813.​

​Pal U, Kitsou C, Drecktrah D, Yaş ÖB, Fikrig E. Interactions Between Ticks and Lyme Disease Spirochetes. Curr Issues Mol Biol. 2021; 42:113-144. doi: 10.21775/cimb.042.113. Epub 2020 Dec 8. PMID: 33289683.

Yang X, Koči J, Smith AA, Zhuang X, Sharma K, Dutta S, Rana VS, Kitsou C, Yas OB, Mongodin EF, Pal U. A novel tick protein supports integrity of gut peritrophic matrix impacting existence of gut microbiome and Lyme disease pathogens. Cell Microbiol. 2021 Feb;23(2):e13275. doi: 10.1111/cmi.13275. Epub 2020 Oct 21. PMID: 33006213. 

[Selected as cover and Editor's Choice Article:]

De S, Kitsou C, Sonenshine DE, Pedra JHF, Fikrig E, Kassis JA, Pal U. Epigenetic Regulation of Tick Biology and Vectorial Capacity. Trends Genet. 2021 Jan;37(1):8-11. doi: 10.1016/j.tig.2020.09.012. Epub 2020 Oct 2. PMID: 33020021.

2019 - 2020

Cao Y, Rosen C, Arora G, Gupta A, Booth CJ, Murfin KE, Cerny J, Marin Lopez A, Chuang YM, Tang X, Pal U, Ring A, Narasimhan S, Fikrig E. An Ixodes scapularis Protein Disulfide Isomerase Contributes to Borrelia burgdorferi Colonization of the Vector. Infect Immun. 2020 Nov 16; 88(12):e00426-20. doi: 10.1128/IAI.00426-20. PMID: 32928964.

Kurokawa C, Lynn GE, Pedra JHF, Pal U, Narasimhan S, Fikrig E. Interactions between Borrelia burgdorferi and ticks. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2020 Oct;18(10):587-600. doi: 10.1038/s41579-020-0400-5. PMID: 32651470.

Marcinkiewicz AL, Lieknina I, Yang X, Lederman PL, Hart TM, Yates J, Chen WH, Bottazzi ME, Mantis NJ, Kraiczy P, Pal U, Tars K, Lin YP. The Factor H-Binding Site of CspZ as a Protective Target against Multistrain, Tick-Transmitted Lyme Disease. Infect Immun. 2020 Apr 20; 88(5):e00956-19. doi: 10.1128/IAI.00956-19. PMID: 32122944.

Gomes-Solecki M, Arnaboldi PM, Backenson PB, Benach JL, Cooper CL, Dattwyler RJ, Diuk-Wasser M, Fikrig E, Hovius JW, Laegreid W, Lundberg U, Marconi RT, Marques AR, Molloy P, Narasimhan S, Pal U, Pedra JHF, Plotkin S, Rock DL, Rosa P, Telford SR, Tsao J, Yang XF, Schutzer SE. Protective Immunity and New Vaccines for Lyme Disease. Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Apr 10;70(8):1768-1773. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciz872. PMID: 31620776.

​Bista S, Singh P, Bernard Q, Yang X, Hart T, Lin YP, Kitsou C, Singh Rana V, Zhang F, Linhardt RJ, Zhnag K, Akins DR, Hritzo L, Kim Y, Grab DJ, Dumler JS, Pal U. A Novel Laminin-Binding Protein Mediates Microbial-Endothelial Cell Interactions and Facilitates Dissemination of Lyme Disease Pathogens. J Infect Dis. 2020 Apr 7;221(9):1438-1447. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiz626. PMID: 31758693.​

Pal U, Kitsou C, Drecktrah D, Buyuktanir O, and Fikrig E.  Interactions between ticks and Lyme disease spirochetes. In Lyme Disease and Relapsing Fever Spirochetes: Genomics, Molecular Biology, Host Interactions, and Disease Pathogenesis, Edited by Justin D. Radolf and D. Scott Samuels, DOI:, Caister Academic Press, Norwich, UK, 2020

Narasimhan S, Lynn G, Pal U and Fikrig E. Expert opinion on whether or not climate change is impacting ticks and tick-borne diseases. In Climate, Ticks and Disease. Edited by Pat Nuttall, CABI, UK, (Under Publication), 2020

Bernard Q, Thakur M, Smith AA, Kitsou C, Yang X, Pal U. Borrelia burgdorferi protein interactions critical for microbial persistence in mammals. Cell Microbiol. 2019 Feb; 21(2):e12885. doi: 10.1111/cmi.12885. Epub 2018 Jul 8. PMID: 29934966.

2017 - 2018

Marques AR, Yang X, Smith AA, Zhuang X, Turk S, Williams CD, Law MA, Barbour AG, Pal U.  Citrate anticoagulant improves the sensitivity of Borreliella (Borrelia) burgdorferi plasma culture.  J Clin Microbiol. 55(11):3297-3299, 2018

Smith AA, Yang X, Singh P, Fikrig E and Pal U.  Artificial Infection of Ticks with Borrelia burgdorferi Using a Microinjection Method and Their Detection In Vivo Using Quantitative PCR Targeting flaB RNA. Methods Mol Biol 1690:105-114, 2018

Yang X, Thakur M, Koci J, Smith AA, Singh P, Zhung X, Promnares, Wang Y, Buyuktanir O and Pal U. Analysis of Borrelia burgdorferi proteome and protein-protein interactions. Methods Mol Biol 1690: 259-277, 2018

Koci J, Bernard Q, Yang X, and Pal U.  Borrelia burgdorferi surface protein Lmp1 facilitates pathogen dissemination through ticks as studied by an artificial membrane feeding system. Sci Rep 8(1): 1910, 2018

Marcinkiewicz AL, Lieknina I, Kotelovica S, Yang X, Kraiczy P, Pal U, Lin Y, Tars K.  Eliminating factor H-binding activity of B. burgdorferi CspZ combined with virus-like particle conjugation enhances its efficacy as a Lyme disease vaccine. Front Immunol 9:181, 2018

Hart T, Yang X, Pal U, Lin, Y.  Identification of Lyme borreliae proteins promoting vertebrate host blood-specific spirochete survival in Ixodes scapularis nymphs using artificial feeding chambers.  Ticks and Tick-Borne Diseases 9(5):1057-1063, 2018

Bernard Q, Smith AA, Yang X, Koci J, Foor SD, Cramer SD, Zhuang X, Dwyer JE, Lin Y, Mongodin E, Marques A, Leong JM, Anguita J and Pal U. Plasticity in early immune evasion strategies of a bacterial pathogen. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 115(16): E3788-E3797, 2018

Zhuang X, Yang X, Altieri AS, Nelson DC and Pal U.   Borrelia burgdorferi surface-located Lmp1 protein processed into region-specific polypeptides that are critical for microbial persistence.  Cellular Microbiol 20 (9) e12855. doi: 10.1111/cmi.12855. 2018

Kitsou C and Pal U.  Ixodes immune responses against Lyme disease pathogens.  Front. Cell. Infect. Microbiol 8: 176, doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2018.00176, 2018

Taank V, Zhou W, Zhuang X, Anderson JF, Pal U, Sultana H and Neelakanta G.  Characterization of tick organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs) upon bacterial and viral infections. Parasites and vectors, 11(1): 593, 2018

Shaw DK, Tate AT, Schneider DS, Levashina EA, Kagan JC, Pal U, Fikrig E and Pedra JHF.  Vector Immunity and Evolutionary Ecology: The Harmonious Dissonance.  Trends Immunol 39(11): 862-873, 2018

Shaw DK, Wang X, Brown LJ, Oliva Chávez AS, Reif KE, Smith AA, Scott AJ, E. McClure EE, Boradia VM, Hammond HL, Sundberg EJ, Snyder G, Liu L, DePonte K, Villar M, Ueti MW, de la Fuente J, Ernst RK, Pal U, Fikrig E, Pedra JH. Infection-derived lipids elicit an immune deficiency circuit in arthropods. Nature Communications 8:14401, 2017

Singh P, Verma D, Backstedt BT, Kaur S, Kumar M, Smith AA, Sharma K, Yang X, Azevedo JF, Gomes-Solecki M, Buyuktanir O, and Pal U. Borrelia burgdorferi BBI39 Paralogs, Targets of Protective Immunity, Reduce Pathogen Persistence Either in Hosts or in the Vector. J Infect Dis 215(6): 1000-1009, 2017

Thakur M, Sharma K, Chao K, Smith AA, Herzberg O and Pal U. A protein-protein interaction dictates Borrelial infectivity. Sci Rep 7(1): 2932, 2017

Pal U and Buyuktanir O.  Borrelia burgdorferi.  Springer Protocol Book series: Methods in Molecular Biology, ISSN: 1064-3745; ISBN 978-1-4939-7383-5. Humana press (Springer Nature), 2017

2015 - 2016

Yang X, Lin Y, Heselpoth RD, Buyuktanir O, Qin J, Kung F, Nelson DN, Leong JM, and Pal U. Middle region of the Borrelia burgdorferi surface-located protein 1 (Lmp1) interacts with host chondroitin-6-sulfate and independently facilitates infection. Cell Microbiol 18(1):97-110, 2016

Kung F Kaur S, Smith AA, Yang X, Wilder CN, Sharma K, Buyuktanir O, and Pal U. A Borrelia burgdorferi surface-exposed transmembrane protein lacking detectable immune responses supports pathogen persistence and constitutes a vaccine target. J Infect Dis 213(11): 1786-95, 2016

Ye M, Sharma K, Thakur M, Smith AA, Buyuktanir O, Xiang X, Yang X, Promnares K, Lou Y, Yang XF, Pal U. HtrA, a Temperature- and Stationary Phase-Activated Protease Involved in Maturation of a Key Microbial Virulence Determinant, Facilitates Borrelia burgdorferi Infection in Mammalian Hosts. Infect Immun 84(8):2372-81, 2016

Smith AA, Navasa N, Yang X, Wilder CN, Buyuktanir O, Marques A, Anguita J, Pal U.  Cross-Species Interferon Signaling Boosts Microbicidal Activity within the Tick Vector.  Cell Host Microbe 20(1): 91-8, 2016.  < Highlighted in an independent review article: Cell Host Microbe. 13; 20(1): 3-4, 2016 >

Chalaem P, Chusri S, Fernandez S, Chotigeat W, Anguita J, Pal U, Promnares K. Characterization of a Chikungunya virus strain isolated from banked patients' sera. Virology Journal 13(1):150. 2016

Zhang K, Bian J, Deng Y, Smith A, Nunez R, Li M, Pal U, Yu A, Qiu W, Ealick S, and Li C. Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi does not require thiamin. Nature Microbiol 2:16213, 2016

Kariu T, Sharma K, Singh P, Smith AA, Backstedt BT, Buyuktanir O, and Pal U. BB0323 and novel virulence determinant BB0238: Borrelia burgdorferi proteins that interact with and stabilize each other and are critical for infectivity. J Infect Dis 211: 462-71, 2015

Backstedt BT, Buyuktanir O, Lindow J, Wunder EA, Mitermayer GR, Usmani-Brown S, Ledizet M, Ko A, and Pal U. Efficient Detection of Pathogenic Leptospires Using 16S Ribosomal RNA. PLoS One, 10(6): e0128913, 2015

Carrasco SE, Yang Y, Troxell B, Yang X, Pal U, Yang XF. Borrelia burgdorferi elongation factor EF-Tu is an immunogenic antigen during Lyme borreliosis.  Emerg Microbes Infec 4:e54. doi: 10.1038/emi.2015. 2015

Wang Y, Zhuang X, Zhong Y, Zhang C, Zhang Y, Zeng L, He P, Dong K, Pal U, Guo X, Qin J.  Distribution of Plasmids in Distinct Leptospira Pathogenic Species. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 9(11): e0004220. 2015

2013 - 2014

Earnhart CG, Rhodes DV, Smith AA, Yang X, Tegels B, Carlyon JA, Pal U, and Marconi RT. Assessment of the potential contribution of the highly conserved C-terminal motif (C10) of Borrelia burgdorferi outer surface protein C (OspC) in transmission and infectivity. Pathog Dis 70: 176-84, 2014

Yang X, Smith AA, Williams MS, and Pal U.  A Dityrosine Network Mediated by Dual Oxidase and Peroxidase Influences the Persistence of Lyme Disease Pathogens within the Vector.  J Biol Chem 289: 12813-22, 2014. < Published with Journal Cover image >

Lin Y, Benoit V, Yang X, Martínez-Herranz R, Pal U and Leong JM.  Strain-specific variation of the decorin-binding adhesin DbpA influences the tissue tropism of the Lyme disease spirochete. PLoS Pathog 10(7): e1004238, 2014

Smith AA and Pal U. Immunity-related genes in Ixodes scapularis – perspectives from genome information. Front Cell Infect Microbiol 4: 116, 2014

Yang X, Qin J, Promnares K, Kariu T, Anderson JF, and Pal U. Novel Microbial Virulence Factor Triggers Murine Lyme Arthritis.  J Infect Dis 207: 907-18, 2013. < J Infect Dis Editorial Commentary by Radolf on pages 877-9 >

Sze CW, Smith AA, Choi YH, Yang X, Pal U, Yu A, and Li C. Study of the response regulator Rrp1 reveals its regulatory role on chitobiose utilization and virulence of Borrelia burgdorferi.  Infect Immun 81: 1775-87, 2013

Kariu T, Yang X, Marks CB, Zhang X, and Pal U.  Proteolysis of BB0323 results in two polypeptides that impact physiologic and infectious phenotypes in Borrelia burgdorferi.  Mol Microbiol 88: 510-22, 2013

Kung F, Anguita J, and Pal U. Borrelia burgdorferi and tick proteins supporting pathogen persistence in the vector.  Future Microbiol 8: 41-56, 2013

Yang X, Hegde S, Shroder DY, Smith AA, Promnares K, Neelakanta G, Anderson JF, Fikrig E, and Pal U. The lipoprotein La7 contributes to Borrelia burgdorferi persistence in ticks and their transmission to naïve hosts.  Microbes Infect 15: 729-37, 2013

Kariu T, Smith AA, Yang X, and Pal U. A chitin deacetylase-like protein is a predominant constituent of tick peritrophic membrane that influences the persistence of Lyme disease pathogens within the vector.  PLoS One 8(10): e78376, 2013

Nogueira SV, Backstedt BT, Smith AA, Qin JH, Wunder EA Jr, Ko A, and Pal U. Leptospira interrogans enolase is secreted extracellularly and interacts with plasminogen. PLoS One 8(10): e78150, 2013

2011 - 2012

Nogueira SV, Smith AA, Qin J, and Pal U. A surface enolase participates in Borrelia burgdorferi-plasminogen interaction and contributes to pathogen survival within feeding ticks. Infect Immun 80: 82-90, 2012

KL Hawley, CM Olson, Jr, N Navasa, JM Iglesias-Pedraz, JL Cervantes, MJ Caimano, H Izadi, R Ingalls, Pal U, JC Salazar, JD Radolf, and J Anguita. CD14 Cooperates with Complement Receptor 3 to Mediate MyD88-Independent Phagocytosis of Borrelia burgdorferi.  Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 109: 1228-32, 2012

Ouyang Z, Narasimhan S, Neelakanta G, Kumar M, Pal U, Fikrig E, and Norgard MV. Activation of the RpoN-RpoS regulatory pathway during the enzootic life cycle of Borrelia burgdorferi. BMC Microbiol 12: 44, 2012

Sze CW, Zhang K, Kariu T, Pal U, and Li C. Borrelia burgdorferi needs chemotaxis to establish infection in mammals and to accomplish its enzootic cycle. Infect Immun 80: 2485-92, 2012

Lenhart TR, Kenedy MR, Yang X, Pal U, and Akins, DR. BB0324 and BB0028 are constituents of the Borrelia burgdorferi β-barrel assembly machine (BAM) complex. BMC Microbiol 12: 60, 2012

Kariu T, Coleman AS, Anderson JF, and Pal U.  Methods for rapid transfer and localization of Lyme disease pathogens within the tick gut. J Vis Exp 48: pii: 2544. doi: 10.3791/2544, 2011

Coleman AS, Rossmann E, Yang X, Song H, Lamichhane CM, Iyer R, Schwartz I, and Pal U. BBK07 immunodominant peptides as serodiagnostic markers of Lyme disease. Clin Vaccine Immunol 18: 406-13, 2011

Xiao S, Kumar M, Yang X, Akkoyunlu M, Collins PL, Samal SK, and Pal U. A host-restricted viral vector for antigen-specific immunization against Lyme disease pathogen.  Vaccine 29: 5294-303, 2011

Caimano M, Kenedy M, Kariu T, Desrosiers D, Harman M, Dunham-Ems S, Akins DR, Pal U, and Radolf JD. The hybrid histidine kinase Hk1 is part of a two-component system that is essential for survival of Borrelia burgdorferi in feeding Ixodes scapularis ticks. Infect Immun 79: 3117-30, 2011

Burbelo PD, Bren KE, Ching KH, Coleman AS, Yang X, Kariu T, Iadarola MJ, and Pal U. Antibody profiling Borrelia burgdorferi infection in horses.  Clin Vaccine Immunol 18: 1562-7, 2011

Yang X, Promnares K, Qin J, He M, Shroder D, Kariu T, Wang Y, and Pal U.  Characterization of Multi-protein Complexes of the Borrelia burgdorferi Outer Membrane Vesicles.  J Proteome Res 10: 4556-66. 2011

Eggers CH, Caimano MJ, Malizia RA, Kariu T, Cusack B, Desrosiers DC, Hazlett KRO, Claiborne A, Pal U, and Radolf JD.  The coenzyme A disulfide reductase of Borrelia burgdorferi is important for rapid growth throughout the enzootic cycle and essential for infection of the mammalian host.  Mol Microbiol 82: 679-97, 2011

Kumar M, Kaur S, Kariu T, Yang X, Bossis I, Anderson JF, and Pal U. Borrelia burgdorferi BBA52 is a potential target for transmission blocking Lyme disease vaccine. Vaccine 29: 9012-19, 2011

Yalin W, Lingbing Z, Hongliang Y, Jianmin X, Xiangyan Z, Xiaokui G, Pal U, and Jinhong Q. High prevalence of pathogenic Leptospira in wild and domesticated animals in an endemic area of China. Asian Pac J Trop Med 4: 841-45, 2011

2009 - 2010

Kumar M, Yang X, Coleman AS, and Pal U.  BBA52 facilitates Borrelia burgdorferi transmission from feeding ticks to murine hosts. J Infect Dis 201: 1084-95, 2010

Yang X, Lenhart TR, Kariu T, Anguita J, Akins DR, and Pal U. Characterization of unique regions in Borrelia burgdorferi surface-located membrane protein 1. Infect Immun 78: 4477-87, 2010

Pal U and Fikrig E.  Tick Interactions. In Borrelia: Molecular Biology, Host Interaction and Pathogenesis, Edited by D. Scott Samuels and Justin D. Radolf, Caister Academic Press, Norwich, UK, 2010

Jana M, Dasgupta S, Pal U, and Pahan K. IL-12 P40 homodimer, the so-called biologically inactive molecule, induces nitric oxide synthase in microglia via IL-12Rβ1. Glia 57: 1553-65, 2009

Merk M, Baugh J, Zierow S, Leng L, Pal U, Lee SJ, Ebert AD, Mizue Y, Trent JO, Mitchell R, Nickel W, Kavathas PB, Bernhagen J, and Bucala R. The Golgi-associated protein p115 mediates the secretion of macrophage migration inhibitory factor.  J Immunol 182: 6896-906, 2009

Fikrig E, Narasimhan S, Neelakanta G, Pal U, Chen M, and Flavell R. Toll-like receptors 1 and 2 heterodimers alter Borrelia burgdorferi gene expression in mice and ticks.  J Infect Dis 200: 1331-40, 2009

Yang X, Coleman AS, Anguita J, and Pal U. A Chromosomally-Encoded Virulence Factor Protects the Lyme Disease Pathogen Against Host Adaptive Immunity.  PLoS Pathog 5(3): e1000326, 2009.  < Highlighted by PLoS Pathogens as ‘Featured Research’ >

Promnares K, Kumar M, Shroder DS, Zhang X, Anderson JF, and Pal U.  Borrelia burgdorferi small lipoprotein Lp6.6 is a member of multiple protein complexes in the outer membrane and facilitates pathogen transmission from ticks to mice.  Mol Microbiol 74: 112-25, 2009

de Silva A, Tyson KR, and Pal U. Molecular characterization of the tick-Borrelia Interface. Front Biosci-Landmrk 14: 3051-63, 2009

Zhang X, Yang X, Kumar M, and Pal U.  BB0323 function is essential for Borrelia burgdorferi virulence and persistence through tick-rodent transmission cycle. J Infect Dis 200: 1318-30, 2009.  < Published as Journal Front Cover Image - Oct 15th, 2009 issue >

Dunham-Ems SM, Caimano MJ, Pal U, Wolgemuth CW, Eggers CH, Balic A, and Radolf JD. Live imaging reveals a novel, biphasic mode of dissemination of Borrelia burgdorferi within ticks. J Clin Invest 119: 3652-65, 2009. < Published as Journal Front Cover Image, Dec 2009 >

Ouyang Z, Kumar M, Kariu T, Haq S, Goldberg M, Pal U, and Norgard MV. BosR (BB0647) governs virulence expression in Borrelia burgdorferi.  Mol Microbiol 74: 1331-43, 2009

Coleman AS and Pal U.  BBK07, a dominant in vivo antigen of Borrelia burgdorferi, is a potential marker for serodiagnosis of Lyme disease. Clin Vaccine Immunol 16: 1569-75, 2009

2007 - 2008

Pal U, Wang P, Bao F, Yang X, Samanta S, Schoen R, Wormser GP, Schwartz I, and Fikrig E.  Borrelia burgdorferi basic membrane proteins A and B participate in the genesis of Lyme arthritis.  J Exp Med 205: 133-41, 2008. < Independent Commentary - Nature Clinical Practice Rheumatology, 4, p230, 2008 >

Pal U*, Dai J, Li X, Neelakanta G, Luo P, Kumar M, Wang P, Yang X, Anderson JF, and Fikrig E. A differential role for BB0365 in the persistence of Borrelia burgdorferi within mice and ticks.  J Infect Dis 197: 148-55, 2008.  < *Corresponding author >

Coleman AS, Yang X, Kumar M, Zhang X, Promnares K, Shroder D, Kenedy MR, Anderson JF, Akins DR, and Pal U. Borrelia burgdorferi complement regulator-acquiring surface protein 2 does not contribute to complement resistance or host infectivity. PLoS One 3(8): 3010e, 2008 

Yang X, Izadi H, Coleman AS, Wang P, Ma Y, Fikrig E, Anguita J, and Pal U. Borrelia burgdorferi lipoprotein BmpA activates pro-inflammatory responses in human synovial cells through a protein moiety. Microbes Infect 10: 1300-08, 2008

Li X, Pal U, Ramamoorthi N, Liu X, Desrosiers DC, Eggers CH, Anderson JF, Radolf JD, and Fikrig E. The Lyme disease agent Borrelia burgdorferi requires BB0690, a Dps homologue, to persist within ticks. Mol Microbiol 63: 694–710, 2007

Neelakanta G, Li X, Pal U, Kantor F, Fish D, and Fikrig E. Outer surface protein B is critical for Borrelia burgdorferi adherence and survival within Ixodes ticks. PLoS Pathog 3 (3): e33 doi: 10.1371, 2007

Krishnan MN, Sukumaran B, Pal U, Agaisse H, Murray JL, Hodge TW, and Fikrig E. Rab 5 is required for the cellular entry of Dengue and West Nile Viruses. J Virol 81: 4881-85, 2007

Jana M, Jana A, Pal U, and Pahan K.  A simplified method for isolating purified neurons, oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, and microglia from the same human fetal brain tissue. Neurochem Res 32: 2015-22, 2007

2006 and prior

Pal U, Anderson JF and Fikrig E.  Borrelia burgdorferi and Ixodes scapularis:  Exploring the Pathogen- Vector Interface. In Molecular Biology of Spirochetes, edited by Felipe C. Cabello, Dagmar Hulinska, Henry P. Godfrey, NATO Science Series, I: Life and Behavioral Sciences, Volume 373: 345-53, 2006

Bai F, Wang T, Pal U, Bao F, Gould H, and Fikrig E.  Use of RNA interference to prevent lethal murine West Nile virus infection.  J Infect Dis 191: 1148-54, 2005

Yang XF, Lybecker MC, Pal U, Alani SM, Blevins J, Revel AT, Samuels DS, and Norgard MV.  Analysis of the ospC regulatory element controlled by the RpoN-RpoS regulatory pathway in Borrelia burgdorferi. J Bacteriol 187: 4822-29, 2005

Ramamoorthi N, Narasimhan S, Pal U, Bao F, Yang XF, Anguita J, Norgard MV, Kantor FS, Anderson JF, Koski RA, and Fikrig E.  The Lyme disease agent exploits a tick protein to infect the mammalian host.  Nature 436: 573-77, 2005. < Highlighted as “News and Views” – Nature Medicine, 11, p831-32, 2005 >

Pal U, Yang XF (co-first author), Chen M, Bockenstedt LK, Anderson JF, Flavell RA, Norgard MV, and Fikrig E. OspC facilitates Borrelia burgdorferi invasion of Ixodes scapularis salivary glands. J Clin Invest 113: 220-30, 2004. < Editorial Highlights: J Clin Invest >

Yang XF, Pal U (co-first author), Alani SM, Fikrig E, and Norgard MV.  Essential Role for OspA/B in the Life Cycle of the Lyme Disease Spirochete. J Exp Med 199: 641-48, 2004. < Published as Journal Front Cover, Editorial Commentary in J Exp Med 199, p603, 2004. Independent Commentary in Nature Rev Microbiol 2, p271, 2004 >

Fikrig E, Pal U, Chen M, Anderson JF, and Flavell RA. OspB antibody prevents Borrelia burgdorferi colonization of Ixodes scapularis. Infect Immun 72: 1755-59, 2004

Pal U, Li X, Wang T, Montgomery RM, Ramamoorthi N, deSilva AM, Bao F, Yang XF, Kantor FS, Telford S, Pypaert M, Anderson JF, and Fikrig E. TROSPA, an Ixodes scapularis receptor for Borrelia burgdorferi. Cell 119: 457-68, 2004.  < Published as Cell Featured article, Editorial Comment, Independent Commentary in The Lancet, 366, p962, 2004 >

Pal U and Fikrig E.  Adaptation of Borrelia burgdorferi in the vector and vertebrate host. Microbes Infect 5:659-66, 2003

Wang T, Malawista SE, Pal U, Grey M, Meek J, Akkoyunlu M, Thomas V, and Fikrig E.  Superoxide anion production during infection with the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis. J Infect Dis 186: 274-80, 2002

Pal U, Montgomery RR, Lusitani D, Voet P, Weynants V, Malawista SE, Lobet Y, and Fikrig E.  Inhibition of Borrelia burgdorferi-tick interactions in vivo by OspA antibody.  J Immunol 166: 7398-403, 2001

Pal U, de Silva AM, Montgomery RR, Fish D, Anguita J, Anderson JF, Lobet Y, and Fikrig E. Attachment of Borrelia burgdorferi within Ixodes scapularis mediated by OspA. J Clin Invest 106: 561-69, 2000

Pal U, Chowdhury S, and Sarkar PK.  Tubulin and glial fibrillary acidic protein gene expression in developing fetal human brain at midgestation.  Neurochem Res 24: 637-41, 1999

Biswas SC, Pal U, and Sarkar PK.  Regulation of cytoskeletal proteins by thyroid hormone during neuronal maturation and differentiation.  Brain Res 757: 245-53, 1997

Pal U, Biswas SC, and Sarkar PK.  Regulation of actin and its mRNA by thyroid hormones in cultures of fetal human brain during second trimester of gestation. J Neurochem 69: 1170-76, 1997